@atas: sayangnya jabatan presiden di Iran sangat terbatas kekuasaannya, tidak seperti presiden di negara sekuler.
Kekuasaan tertinggi di Iran dipegang oleh ayatollah ali khameini yang memegang kekuasaan tertinggi di bidang keagamaaan, politik, militer, dan yudikatif.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (Persian: ÃÂÃÂÃÂ ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ§ÃÂÃÂ±ÃÂ§ÃÂÃ¢ÂÂ, vali-e faghih-e iran, lit. Guardian Jurist of Iran, or ÃÂ±ÃÂÃÂ¨ÃÂ± ÃÂ§ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ§ÃÂ¨, rahbar-e enghelab, lit. Leader of the Revolution) is the highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The post was established by the constitution in accordance with the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists. The title "Supreme" Leader (Persian: ÃÂÃÂÃÂ ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ, vali-e faghih) is often used as a sign of respect; however, this terminology is not found in the constitution of Iran, which simply referred to the "Leader" (rahbar).
The leader is more powerful than the President of Iran and appoints the heads of many powerful posts in the military, the civil government, and the judiciary. Originally Iran’s constitution stated that the Leader must be a Marja’-e taqlid, the highest ranking cleric and authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam. However in 1989, the constitution was amended to require simply Islamic "scholarship" of the leader, i.e. the leader could be a lower ranking cleric.
Ayatollah masih dibantu oleh Guardian Council, yang bertugas antara lain untuk menyetujui kandidat yang boleh mengikuti pemilihan presiden dan mengawasi jalannya pemilu.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (Persian: ÃÂ´ÃÂÃÂ±ÃÂ§ÃÂ ÃÂÃÂ¯ÃÂÃÂ¨ÃÂ§ÃÂ ÃÂÃÂ§ÃÂÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ§ÃÂ³ÃÂ§ÃÂ³ÃÂÃ¢ÂÂ, Shora-ye Negahban-e Qanun-e Assassi) is an appointed and constitutionally-mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Iranian constitution calls for the council to be composed of six Islamic faqihs (expert in Islamic Law), "conscious of the present needs and the issues of the day" to be selected by the Supreme Leader of Iran, and six jurists, "specializing in different areas of law, to be elected by the Majlis (the Iranian Parliament) from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial Power," (who, in turn, is also appointed by the supreme leader).
It is charged with interpreting the Constitution of Iran, supervising elections of, and approving of candidates to, the Assembly of Experts, the President and the Majlis, and "ensuring … the compatibility of the legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly [i.e. Majlis] … with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution".
The Council has played a central role in allowing only one interpretation of Islamic values to inform Iranian law, as it consistently disqualifies reform-minded candidatesÃ¢ÂÂincluding the most well-known candidatesÃ¢ÂÂfrom running for office, and vetoes laws passed by the popularly elected Majlis.
Kalau presiden Rohani terus menerus menunjukkan sikap yang terlalu sekuler dan moderat, dengan gampang dia bisa diturunkan dari jabatannya oleh si ayatollah. Kecuali kalau gelombang arab spring sudah menyentuh Iran, dan rakyatnya berani mengganti sistem pemerintahan teokratis yang sekarang dengan pemerintahan demokratis yang sesungguhnya.
Tapi kalau melihat kuatnya posisi si ayatollah dan dukungan loyal dari militer dan garda republik, kemunculan arab spring di Iran masih butuh waktu yang agak panjang.